Blogs & Articles


Jun 30, 2023

What is Carbon Accounting?


Carbon accounting is the process of measuring how much greenhouse gas (GHG) a company or organisation emits. A full carbon accounting process requires measuring the company’s activities throughout all three of the scopes defined by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHGP).

The carbon accounting process includes a few key steps we will delve into later: measurement, reporting, and verification.

Some companies seek to perform carbon accounting in-house, but it is usually more efficient to utilise the services of an entity that specialises in the process.


What is the Goal of Carbon Accounting?

The aims of carbon accounting are manifold. At its most basic, carbon accounting aims to make companies aware of their activities and the impact of these activities, so that they may take measures to reduce their emissions. This can be to improve public image, to contribute to the fight against climate change, to improve efficiency, or a combination of all three. More specific goals can be split into identification goals and practical goals.

Identification Goals:

  • Understand where the main offenders and hot spots are in a company’s processes
  • Review which areas of a business are least efficient in terms of both carbon and money
  • Understand the company’s full environmental impact
  • Understand where the company is vulnerable to climate change

Practical Goals:

  • Reduce carbon emissions, cut waste, and save money
  • Report emissions and improve public perception
  • Become compliant with climate legislation
  • Climate proof the company

The three steps of carbon accounting: measurement, reporting, and verification.

  1. Measurement: Carbon accounting involves identifying and quantifying the various GHGs emitted by an entity or a specific activity. The most common GHGs considered are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and fluorinated gases. These emissions are measured in metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e), which provides a standardized unit for comparing different greenhouse gases.
  2. Reporting: Once the emissions are measured, carbon accounting involves reporting the findings in a clear and transparent manner. Reporting often follows recognised frameworks and guidelines, such as those provided by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHGP) or the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14064.
  3. Verification: To ensure the accuracy and credibility of reported emissions, carbon accounting often undergoes a verification process. Independent third-party auditors review the data, methodologies, and calculations to validate the accuracy and adherence to reporting standards.


Methods of Carbon Accounting

There are several methods and approaches that organisations can adopt to conduct carbon accounting. These methods can vary depending on the resources, expertise, and specific needs of the organisation. Here are some common methods of carbon accounting:

  1. Consultants: Organisations can enlist the services of specialised environmental consultants who have expertise in conducting carbon accounting. These consultants work closely with the organisation to gather relevant data, perform calculations, and provide insights and recommendations for emission reductions. One limitation of this method is that it tends to be very slow and expensive compared to software or AI solutions, and the accuracy is variable.
  2. In-house: Some organisations choose to build in-house teams dedicated to carbon accounting. This approach allows for greater control and customisation of the process. In-house teams can work closely with various departments within the organisation to collect data, analyse emissions, and develop strategies for emission reduction. One limitation of this method is that businesses often lack dedicated tools necessary for this process, and it can take a long time to train staff to the necessary level.
  3. Software: Carbon accounting software provides organisations with tools and platforms to streamline the data collection, calculation, and reporting processes. These software solutions often incorporate standardised methodologies, emission factors, and reporting frameworks, making it easier for organisations to comply with reporting requirements and benchmark their performance.
  4. Artificial Intelligence (AI): The emergence of AI technologies is revolutionising carbon accounting. AI algorithms can analyse large datasets, identify patterns, and provide valuable insights into emissions hotspots and mitigation opportunities. AI-powered systems can also automate data collection, perform real-time monitoring, and improve the accuracy and efficiency of carbon accounting processes. It is important for organisations to consider their specific needs, resources, and capabilities when selecting a method of carbon accounting. Some may prefer the expertise and external perspective offered by consultants, while others may opt for in-house teams to have better control over the process. Software solutions and AI technologies can support and enhance both approaches.

Benefits of Carbon Accounting

  1. Identifying emission sources: Carbon accounting allows organisations to identify and understand the sources of their emissions. This knowledge helps in implementing targeted strategies to reduce or eliminate the most significant contributors to their carbon footprint.
  2. Setting emissions reduction goals: By establishing a baseline of emissions, organisations can set realistic and measurable reduction targets. These goals promote sustainable practices, spur innovation, and encourage the adoption of cleaner technologies.
  3. Enhancing reputation and stakeholder engagement: Carbon accounting provides organisations with an opportunity to demonstrate their commitment to environmental responsibility. Transparent reporting can boost an organisation’s reputation, attracting environmentally conscious customers, investors, and stakeholders.
  4. Compliance with regulations: Many regions and countries have implemented regulations and reporting requirements related to GHG emissions. Carbon accounting helps organisations comply with these regulations, avoid penalties, and stay ahead of evolving environmental policies.


Challenges and the Future of Carbon Accounting

While carbon accounting offers significant benefits, it also faces challenges. The complexity of data collection, varying methodologies, and the need for consistent standards can make the process demanding. However, ongoing efforts by international bodies, governments, and organisations are working towards developing standardized protocols to address these challenges. The future of carbon accounting lies in expanding its scope and impact. As the urgency to combat climate change increases, carbon accounting is likely to become more integrated with financial reporting and decision-making processes. Furthermore, advancements in technology, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) devices and blockchain, hold the potential to streamline data collection, enhance accuracy, and automate carbon accounting processes.

To Conclude…

Carbon accounting serves as a fundamental tool in the fight against climate change by providing organisations and governments with the means to measure, report, and reduce GHG emissions. By understanding their carbon footprint, entities can implement targeted strategies, set reduction goals, comply with regulations, and engage stakeholders. While challenges remain, ongoing developments and a collective commitment to environmental stewardship pave the way for a future where carbon accounting plays a central role in building a sustainable and resilient world.


Key Takeaways

  1. Carbon accounting is the process of measuring and tracking greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced by organisations to understand their environmental impact.
  2. The goals of carbon accounting include raising awareness, reducing emissions, improving efficiency, complying with regulations, and enhancing public perception.
  3. The three key steps of carbon accounting are measurement, reporting, and verification, which involve quantifying emissions, transparently reporting findings, and validating accuracy through third-party verification.
  4. Carbon accounting methods can involve using consultants, in-house teams, software, and artificial intelligence tools to streamline the process.
  5. The benefits of carbon accounting include identifying emission sources, setting reduction goals, enhancing reputation and stakeholder engagement, and ensuring compliance with environmental regulations.
  6. Challenges in carbon accounting include data complexity, varying methodologies, and the need for standardized protocols, which ongoing efforts aim to address.
  7. The future of carbon accounting lies in its integration with financial reporting and decision-making processes, as well as leveraging technology advancements like IoT and blockchain for improved data collection and automation.